Resin-based composites are an integral component of contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. They can be utilized effectively for preventive resin restorations, moderate Class II restorations, Class III restorations, Class IV restorations, Class V restorations and strip crowns. Tooth isolation to prevent contamination is a critical factor, and high-risk children may not be ideal candidates for resin-based composite restorations. Important factors to consider during composite placement are isolation, polymerization shrinkage and extent of restoration. When utilized correctly, resin-based composites can provide excellent restorations in the primary and permanent dentition.